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Employment & Labor Law Research

Resources for research in employment law, employment discrimination law, and labor relations law.

Federal & State Statutes, Local Ordinances

Employment discrimination is often covered by both federal and state statutes.

Cities and counties also enact ordinances covering some aspects of employment discrimination.

The laws may cover different employers. For example, Title VII covers employers with at least 15 employees; the Washington Law Against Discrimination covers employers with at least 8 employees (excluding religious and nonprofit employers). The King County law covers employers in unincorporated King County with at least 8 employees (excluding religious and nonprofit employers and all governments but King County itself).

Selected Federal Statutes - Employment Discrimination Law

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Pub.L. 88–352, 78 Stat. 241, codified at 42 U.S.C. §§ 2000e –2000e17
Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA), Pub.L. 95–555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978), codified at 42 U.S.C. § 2000e(k)
Equal Pay Act of 1963, Pub.L. 88–38, June 10, 1963, 77 Stat. 56, codified at 29 U.S.C. § 206
Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA), Pub.L. 90–202, Dec. 15, 1967, 81 Stat. 602, codified at 29 U.S.C. §§ 621–634
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), Pub.L. 101–336, July 26, 1990, 104 Stat. 327, codified at 42 U.S.C. §§ 12101–12213
Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008, Pub.L. 110–233, May 21, 2008, 122 Stat. 881, codified at 42 USC §§ 300gg-53, 26 U.S.C. § 9834, 42 U.S.C. §§  200ff–200ff-11.

Selected Washington Statutes - Employment Discrimination Law

Law Against Discrimination, RCW 49.60.  Protects against discrimination on the basis of  " race, creed, color, national origin, sex, honorably discharged veteran or military status, sexual orientation, or the presence of any sensory, mental, or physical disability or the use of a trained dog guide or service animal by a person with a disability." RCW 49.60.030(1).

Selected Ordinances - Employment Discrimination Law

Types of Discrimination Covered: Federal, State, Local

  Federal Laws Washington Law
Against Discrimination
Fair Employment
Practices Ordinance
King County
Fair Employment
Practices Ordinance
race Title VII
color Title VII
religion  Title VII  
sex Title VII  
national origin Title VII  
pregnancy, childbirth, or related conditions Title VII      
age ADEA
marital status  
sexual orientation  
honorably discharged veteran or military status see this Dept of Labor page  
disability  ADA
gender identity     ✔ (incl. in definition of "sexual orientation")
genetic information GINA    
political ideology